Journal Article
Particle Spring Models for form finding

Particle-spring systems are well-known in computer science for creating physical simulations. In this paper,
we propose the use of particle-spring systems for finding structural forms composing only axial forces. The
equilibrium position of each particle is found using a Runge-Kutta solver, which allows the user to interact
with the simulation while it is running. Several examples illustrate the technique, beginning with twodimensional
funicular forms and extending to three-dimensional networks. The paper proposes a novel
three-dimensional design and analysis tool, which can be used by engineers and architects to find structural
forms in real time.

Title
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsKilian A, Ochsendorf J
JournalJOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR SHELL AND SPATIAL STRUCTURES: IASS
VolumeVOL. 46
Issue147
KeywordsForm finding, funicular form, grid shells, hanging model experiments, tension structures
Abstract

Particle-spring systems are well-known in computer science for creating physical simulations. In this paper,
we propose the use of particle-spring systems for finding structural forms composing only axial forces. The
equilibrium position of each particle is found using a Runge-Kutta solver, which allows the user to interact
with the simulation while it is running. Several examples illustrate the technique, beginning with twodimensional
funicular forms and extending to three-dimensional networks. The paper proposes a novel
three-dimensional design and analysis tool, which can be used by engineers and architects to find structural
forms in real time.