4.113
Architectural Design Fundamentals II

This studio aims to develop and further our understanding of architecture through the lens of the “machine” as an apparatus, a device, a system and an architecture for understanding inputs, processes and outputs that lead to the creation of space. Three primary engines of drawing, making and spatial investigations will be employed to elaborate on that theme. Different connotations of the machine such as an analogy, a system of working, and a device for decision making literally and conceptually throughout each project will be explored. This course is specifically designed to play off of studentʼs non- architectural undergraduate classes by introducing a domain of investigation, through which a dialogue can be created to span multiple backgrounds and applications. This studio will investigate the notion of self- organization by employing different connotations of machine at three different scales: 1. As way of critically investigating the act of drawing by developing processes and templates that will allow students to reveal the internal logic of the subjects they study – i.e. “the drawing machine”. 2. As a way of investigating the said drawings as devices capable of shaping 3-dimensional constructs. By introducing the theme of ʻfilteringʼ, the students will cast a series of constructs employing additive, subtractive and combinatorial operations – i.e. “the filtering machine”. 3. As a way of creating space by examining notions of the solid and the void, inhabitation, scale and context– i.e. “ the architecture machine”.

The first project investigates the premise of “drawing machines,” by looking at precedents of self- organization found in nearly every domain, from the physical and biological sciences to the artificial and computation based disciplines. These precedents will be broken down into a series of “logic diagrams” exploring the fundamental elements of the precedent investigating questions as such: Why it works, how it works, at what scale does it work and how it can be translated into an abstract series of rules. Next, students will employ the diagrams as the basis for developing a series of digital drawing “machines” in Processing, . These drawings will then be translated into CNC milled templates, manifesting and further developing the logic of their precedents.

The second project focuses on the theme of “filtering machines”, translating the templates of the previous exercise into spatial constructs capable of performing within the structure of predefined parameters. Through assembling the templates in specific configurations and inserting them within a bounding box, the students are required to cast plaster, within the delineated space such that a series of spatial requirements be met. By using ʻfilteringʼ as a physical and material bound condition, as well as an abstract concept, the students will create cast objects, which will then be carefully investigated by means of horizontal and vertical cuts. This project poses the question of translation from drawing to material objects, by having a specific theme and a series of spatial limitations as delineating elements that will allow the further development of their case studies from the first project.

The final project investigates the process of creating space, that of “architecture machines”, utilizing the studentsʼ precedent studies and the machines they have produced in the previous two projects as tools that will allow them to establish relationships between different elements and develop design strategies in an architectural context. The program for the third exercise is that of a repose and meditative facility, for people who have acute conditions related to light, sound and air exposure. The students will revisit their drawings from project 1 (2D drawing) and their systems (3D drawings/ models) from project 2 in order to develop a spatial drawing (axonometric), which will then be modified to take into account the program of filtration and what it can imply to satisfy different levels of sensitivity in exposure to light, sound and air. They will build a series of abstract models realizing the spatial potential of their generations in view of the process of filtering. This project questions how architecture can be understood as a machine, and how the processes of working through projects (in drawing and making), along with the theme of filtration become a generator for space, circulation and program. The axon, physical models, plans/sections and a wall section will be emphasized in this project in order to translate an idea into an architectural proposition and understand the intentions and consequences behind basic design decisions.

Students should also be able to engage with an increasing level of design research through iterative studies and move fluidly between different modes and scales of operation. Conventions of architectural representation and communication through drawing and modeling should be engaged with clarity and intention. Students will need to demonstrate basic application of design skills, understanding of architectural conventions, and ability to sustain an increasing level of research in the projects over the semester. Completion of each of the exercises, rigor in process and clarity in representation, as well as the overall progress of the semester will be fundamental factors in the final evaluation.